History of New Orleans
The history of New Orleans reads like a fantastic novel. Here are a few of the highlights to help you better understand the historical dynamics that have shaped this utterly unique city.
French Founders: 1718
In 1718, the Frenchmen Sieur de Bienville founded a strategic port city five feet below sea level, near the juncture of the Mississippi and the Gulf of Mexico. The new city, or ville, was named La nouvelle Orleans for Philippe, Duc d’Orleans, and centered around the Place d’Arms (later to be known as Jackson Square). The original city was confined to the area we now call the French Quarter or Vieux Carre (Old Square).
Spanish Rule: 1762-1801
In 1762, either because he lost a bet or because the royal coffers were exhausted, Louis XV gave Louisiana to his Spanish cousin, King Charles III. Spanish rule was relatively short — lasting until 1801 — but Spain would leave a lasting imprint on the city. In 1788, the city went up in flames, incinerating over 800 buildings. New Orleans was still recovering when a second fire in 1794 destroyed 200 structures. One of the only French structures to survive these fires is the Old Ursuline Convent (1100 Chartres). Completed in 1752, it is the oldest building in the Mississippi River Valley. This means that most of the buildings you see in the French Quarter were actually constructed by the Spanish.
Louisiana Purchase: 1803
In 1801, Louisiana ceded back to France, but only two years later Napoleon sold the territory to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, effectively doubling the size of the U.S.A. At a cost of only $15 million, it was considered one of the greatest real estate bargains in history.
The American Sector and Haitian Immigration
After the Louisiana Purchase, Americans arrived en masse as did European immigrants from Germany, Ireland and Sicily. Tension existed between the European Creoles concentrated in the French Quarter and the new American residents. As a result, the Americans settled across Canal Street in what was known then as the American Sector, known today as The Central Business District. The two factions skirmished often, and the Canal Street median became neutral area where the two groups could come together to do business without invading the other’s territory. Ever since, all city medians have been called neutral grounds. And the Haitian Revolution of 1804 meant that for years to come thousands of Afro-Caribbean descent would come to call New Orleans home. These immigrants further diversified the population of New Orleans and made colorful contributions to the city’s culture.
The War of 1812 and The Battle of New Orleans
The war of 1812 began, and culminated in the Battle of New Orleans three years later. In January of 1815, 8,000 British troops were poised to attack and overtake the City of New Orleans. The American forces lead by General Andrew Jackson were grossly outnumbered. And due to the circumstances an unusual union formed- the notorious pirate Jean Lafitte and his men joined the American forces to defend New Orleans. On January 8, a polyglot band of 4,000 militia, frontiersmen, former Haitian slaves, and Lafitte’s pirates defeated the British at the Chalmette battlefield, just a few miles east of the French Quarter. The battlefield remains a place worthy of a visit.
The New Paris
By the mid 1800s, the city in the bend of the river became the fourth largest in the U.S. and one of the richest, dazzling visitors with chic Parisian couture, fabulous restaurants and sophisticated culture. Society centered around the French Opera House, where professional opera and theatre companies played to full houses. In fact, opera was performed in New Orleans seven years before the Louisian Purchase, and more than 400 operas premiered in the Crescent City during the l9th century.
A Cultural Gumbo
Under French, Spanish and American flags, Creole society coalesced as Islanders, West Africans, slaves, free people of color and indentured servants poured into the city along with a mix of French and Spanish aristocrats, merchants, farmers, soldiers, freed prisoners and nuns. New Orleans was, for its time, a permissive society, that resulted an intermingling of peoples unseen in other communities. And it is New Orleans’ diverse heritage that is the driving force behind this unique and exotic city. The contributions of Africans, Caribbean peoples, the French, Spanish, Germans, Irish Sicilians and more created a society unlike any other.
Over the years, New Orleans has had a powerful influence on American and global culture. Our cuisine is known across the world and through the innovative sounds of jazz rock and roll was born. Literary giants from Tennessee Williams to William Faulkner have flocked to the city for inspiration. Our food, music and cultural practices will capture your imagination and your heart. Diversity, creativity and celebration are at the core of the New Orleans way of life. All are welcome- the more ingredients the more we can feed.
For more information on New Orleans history, visit one of our many museums or take a tour with one of our knowledgeable guides.
Story courtesy of New Orleans Metropolitan Convention and Visitors Bureau.
2020 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70130 504-566-5019.
Sound Like a Local
Isleños (iz-lay-nyos): Islanders; in this case, Spanish settlers from the Canary Islands. Since 1799, they’ve been fishermen, trappers, and master boat builders in Louisiana. You can find them downriver, in St. Bernard Parish.
Krewe: Members of a carnival organization, as in Krewe of Rex. A variation of “crew,” the word was invented by 19th-century New Orleanians, who privately bankrolled the balls and parades (as is still the case).
Lagniappe (lan-yap): A little something extra. A free coffee or dessert or a few extra ounces of boudin put the “bons” in “bons temps.”
Laissez les bons temps rouler! (less-say lay bon tonh roo-lay): Let the good times roll.
Voodoo: From voudun, meaning “god,” “spirit,” or “insight” in the Fon language of Dahomey. Voodoo came from the West African Yoruba religion via Haiti, where African practices mingled with the Catholicism of French colonists.
Yat: A local denizen. Named for the Ninth Ward greeting, “Where y’at?”